Reference Page


compassion      equality         being yourself
friendship          jealousy        never give up
loneliness           anger             keeping tradition
cooperation       bravery        self-control
fairness               kindness       hope
acceptance        hard work    determination
differences         loyalty           overcoming adversity
taking a stand


alliteration-the repetition of the first sound of a word. (“I will go to the west wall,” Kaa whispered. –Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book)
assonance-similar vowel sounds in words that end with different consonants (“He is all pine, and I apple orchard.” –Robert Frost, “Mending Wall”)
consonance-repetition of consonant sounds anywhere within a word (“Kaa hissed and the city was silent once more.” –Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Book)
couplet-two rhymed lines of poetry
extended metaphor-a metaphor that is applied throughout the entire poem
figurative language-using language to create a special effect
hyperbole-extreme exaggeration to make a point (“I took a notion to hunt a little more, and in about one month I killed forty-seven more, which made one hundred and five bears I had killed in less than a year.” –Davy Crockett, A Narrative of the Life of David Crockett of the State of Tennessee)
idiom-an expression that means something different than what it says (It was raining cats and dogs.)
imagery-the images or pictures used to understand the meaning of a poem (“He was dressed all in fur, from his head to his foot, And his clothes were all covered with ashes and soot.” –Clement Moore, “The Night Before Christmas”)
metaphor-a comparison of two unlike things (“The groves were God’s first temple.” –William Cullen Bryant, “A Forest Hymn”)
meter-the use of stressed and unstressed syllables to create a “beat” for a poem
onomatopoeia-when the sound of the word suggests a particular sound “From the jingling and the tingling of the bells” –Edgar Allan Poe, “The Bells”)
personification-to give human qualities to something that is not human (“The Breezes fetch along And hold the sunshine in its lap” __Emily Dickinson, “The Grass so little has to do__”)
quatrain-four lines of poetry
rhyme scheme-the pattern of rhyme used in a poem
rhythm-the beat of a poem
simile-a comparison between two unlike things using like or as to make the comparison. (“Moan like an autumn wind…” –Carl Sandburg, “Jazz Fantasia” )
stanza-a group of lines
tone-the attitude or behavior the speaker has toward the subject of the poem


active adventurous affectionate afraid
ambitious angry annoyed anxious
argumentative astonished attentive babish
bewildered bored bossy brave
brilliant busy calm capable
careful cautious charming cheerful
childish clever clumsy cold-hearted
compassionate competitive conceited concerned
confident confused considerate cooperative
courageous cowardly critical cruel
curious dangerous daring dependable
determined discouraged dishonest disrespectful
eager easygoing energetic enthusiastic
exciting fair faithful friendly
frustrated funnyt generous gentle
greedy grouchy happy hateful
helpful hopeful hopeless imaginative
immature impatient impulsive independent
insistent intelligent jealous lazy
lonely loving loyal mature
mean meticulous moody mysterious
nervous obnoxious observant optimistic
peaceful persistent pessimistic oblivious
picky polite proud reliable
respectful respectful responsible rude
sarcastic scared secretive selfish
self-reliant sensitive silly sincere
skillful sly smart sneaky
snobbish stingy strange stubborn
talented tenacious thoughtful thoughtless
timid tolerant touchy trusting
trustworthy uncontrolled unfriendly unselfish
upset useful valiant versatile
vivicious silly